Sermon on the Mount
1 When Jesus saw the crowds, he went up on the mountain and sat down. His disciples came to him,
Note the word "disciples". Jesus delivered this sermon to believers. We don't know how many people were in "the crowds" and we don't know if they were all disciples. But Jesus was intentionally preaching to his disciples. In v.12, he tells them they will be persecuted for his name's sake, but their reward will be great in heaven. This applies only to Christians. And in v.13 he tells them, "You are the salt of the earth... ", which only applies to believers.
2 and he opened his mouth and taught them. He said:
3 "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
4 "Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.
5 "Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.
6 "Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be filled.
7 "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy.
8 "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.
9 "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.
10 "Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
11 "Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and say all kinds of evil lies against you because of me.
12 Rejoice and be glad, for great is your reward in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.
Salt and Light
13 "You are the salt of the earth, but if salt becomes tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It’s no longer useful for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled underfoot.
14 "You are the light of the world. A town built on a hill can’t be hidden.
15 Neither do people light a lamp and put it under a bowl, but rather on a stand, and it gives light to everyone in the house.
16 In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven.
Fulfilment of the Law
17 "Don’t think that I've come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I haven't come to abolish them but to fulfil them.
18 For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will by any means pass from the Law until everything is accomplished.
19 Therefore whoever breaks one of the least of these commands, and teaches others to do the same, will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever does them and teaches them, will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.
21 "You've heard that it was said to the people of old, 'You shall not murder, and whoever murders will be subject to judgment.'"
22 But I tell you that whoever is angry with his brother will be subject to judgment. Again, whoever says to a brother, 'Raca,' will answer to the court. And whoever says, 'You fool!' will be subject to the fire of hell.
Court: G.4892 synedriō: Sanhedrin, Jewish council. Fool: G.3474 Mōre. Hell: G.1067: geennan
23 Therefore, if you’re offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you,
24 leave your gift there before the altar. First go and be reconciled to your brother; then come and offer your gift.
25 Settle quickly with your accuser, while you are still together on the way, lest your accuser hands you over to the judge, and the judge hands you over to the officer, and you be put into prison.
26 Truly I tell you, you will never get out until you have paid the last penny.
27 "You’ve heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.'
28 But I tell you that whoever looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart.
The word "woman" means a "married" woman. G.1135 gynaika, The original Greek word gynaika also means "wife" and is often translated as "wife" in other passages. See vv.31, 32. The sin of adultery means that at least one of the adulterers must be married to someone outside of the adulterous relationship. Technically, sex between singles is the sin of fornication and not adultery.
29 If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. It’s better for you to lose a part of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into hell.
30 And if your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off and throw it away from you. It’s better for you to lose a part of your body than for your whole body to end up in hell.
31 "It has been said, 'Whoever divorces his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce.'
Wife: G.1135 gynaika, married woman.
32 But I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, brings adultery upon her, and whoever marries such a divorced woman commits adultery.
Wife: G.1135 gynaika, married woman.
33 "Again, you have heard that it was said to people of old, 'Don't swear falsely, but fulfil to the Lord what you have sworn.'
34 But I tell you, don't swear an oath at all: neither by heaven, for it’s God’s throne;
35 nor by the earth, for it is his footstool; nor by Jerusalem, for it’s the city of the Great King.
36 And don't swear by your head, for you can’t even make one hair white or black.
37 All you need to say is simply 'Yes' or 'No'; anything beyond this comes from the evil one.
38 "You’ve heard that it was said, 'An eye for eye and a tooth for tooth.'
39 But I tell you, don't resist an evil person. If anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.
40 And if anyone wants to sue you for your tunic, give him your cloak as well.
41 And if anyone forces you to go one mile, go with him two miles.
42 Give to the one who begs from you, and don't refuse the one who would borrow from you.
Love for enemies
43 "You've heard that it was said, 'Love your neighbour and hate your enemy.'
44 But I tell you, love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you,
45 so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he causes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust.
just or righteous; unjust or unrighteous.
46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Aren’t even the tax collectors doing that?
47 And if you greet only your brothers, are you doing anything extradordinary? Aren’t even Gentiles doing that?
Gentiles: G.1482 ethnikos
ethnikos: national, foreign, i.e. spec. a Gentile
Original Word: ἐθνικός, ή, όν
Part of Speech: Adjective
Phonetic Spelling: (eth-nee-kos')
Definition: national, foreign, a Gentile
Usage: pagan, heathen, gentile; subst: a Gentile, non-Jew.
Cognate: 1482 ethnikós(from 1484/éthnos, "nation") – Gentile; heathen, usually referring to non-Israelites; a pagan, a "non-covenant person," standing outside God's covenant (salvation). See 1484 (ethnos).
48 Therefore, you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.